Abstract for F026


Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest
Forêts tempérées inondées et marécageuses


Temperate Flooded & Swamp Forest is a forested wetland and peatland. It is defined as a tree-dominated wetland in temperate climates that is influenced by minerotrophic groundwater, either on mineral or organic (peat) soils. The vegetation is dominated by broad-leaved or needle-leaved trees, generally over 10% cover, and either a wood-rich peat, more common in depressions, or a mineral soil on floodplains. In swamp forests, the water table is often below the major portion of the ground surface, and the dominant ground surface is at the hummock ground surface, that is, 20 cm or more above the average summer groundwater level. It is the aerated (or partly aerated) zone of substrates above the water that is available for root growth of trees and/or tall shrubs. Flooded forests (sometimes called riverine or riparian swamps) have a more dynamic water table, with seasonal flooding inundating the vegetation for short (<7 days) to long (>1 month) periods. They are found along rivers, streams and lakes. They are subject to dramatic water fluctuations, seasonal flooding, and an influx of sediment and mineral enrichment during high water periods. Peat accumulation is usually shallow (less than 40 cm). The nutrient regime in swamps is highly variable, ranging from base-rich conditions with pH above 7.0, to base-poor conditions where pH can be in the range of 4.5 or lower.

Source: Faber-Langendoen, D., T. Keeler-Wolf, D. Meidinger, C. Josse, A. Weakley, D. Tart, G. Navarro, B. Hoagland, S. Ponomarenko, J.-P. Saucier, G. Fults, E. Helmer. 2014. Classification and description of world formation types. Part I (Introduction) and Part II (Description of world formations). Hierarchy Revisions Working Group, Federal Geographic Data Committee, FGDC Secretariat, U.S. Geological Survey. Reston, VA, and NatureServe, Arlington, VA.

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