Abstract for CNVC00311


Abies balsamea (Betula alleghaniensis) / Dryopteris carthusiana

Balsam Fir (Yellow Birch) / Spinulose Wood Fern
Sapin baumier (Bouleau jaune) / Dryoptère spinuleuse

CNVC00311 is a boreal mixedwood forest Association that occurs in the southern part of insular Newfoundland. It has a closed canopy dominated by balsam fir (Abies balsamea) with a significant component of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). The shrub layer is usually moderately developed and consists mainly of balsam fir regeneration. A moderately developed to dense herb layer that is dominated by wood ferns (spinulose wood fern [Dryopteris carthusiana] or evergreen wood fern [D. intermedia]) characterizes this Association. Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis) and northern starflower (Lysimachia borealis) are usually present. Wild lily-of-the-valley (Maianthemum canadense) is less common but can be abundant when present. Where fern cover is dense, the moss layer is poorly developed, but where it is more moderate, the moss layer can be continuous and is typically dominated by three-lobed whipwort (Bazzania trilobata) and lanky moss (Rhytidiadelphus loreus), with lower abundance of greater broom moss (Dicranum majus), stairstep moss (Hylocomium splendens) and red-stemmed feathermoss (Pleurozium schreberi). CNVC00311 occurs in a region with a humid to very humid, maritime-influenced boreal climate. It is typically found on mesic to moist, nutrient-medium to rich sites. These are some of the most productive sites in Newfoundland. Fire is uncommon in the humid climate; instead windthrow and insect outbreaks are the primary natural disturbances. Canopy gaps or large patches that result from these disturbances promote self-replacement of this Association by the release of balsam fir and yellow birch regeneration. Two subassociations are distinguished, typic and Bazzania trilobata.